Research Ethics

Belmont Report
The Belmont Report sets forth basic ethical principles for the conduct of research involving human subjects. Those principles, respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, have been formally adopted by Northwestern University through its Federalwide Assurance, for all research at NU involving human subjects. Belmont is the foundation of the U.S. human subjects regulatory system.

Declaration of Helsinki
In 1964 the World Medical Association (WMA) developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving humans. The code of ethics has been widely adopted by medical associations in various countries. It is regularly revised and amended by the WMA.

Nuremburg Code
The Nuremburg Code was developed from the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals. It defines ethical behavior in the conduct of research using human subjects. Its development grew from the atrocities in human research conducted by Nazi Germany.